Human population responsibile for the deformities and destruction of amphibian population in north a
American Midland Naturalist Many amphibians school in large numbers, many newly metamorphosed amphibians aggregate, and many amphibian species mate in large communal groups.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. In Australia, the hatching success of alpine treefrogs Litoria verreauxii alpina and eastern froglets Crinia signifera was significantly enhanced when embryos were shielded from UVB radiation Broomhall et al.
Many amphibians still lay their eggs in shallow water and in large communal masses, potentially subjecting the eggs to UVB radiation and infectious diseases.
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Perhaps for some of the amphibian populations containing such individuals, those attributes will be good enough to permit the species to persist for millions more years. For example, ozone depletion is a phenomenon initiated only decades ago by human impacts on stratospheric chemistry Madronich et al. The coupling of environmental changes and disease outbreaks in amphibians in North America and in the tropics is emblematic of the complexity and dynamics of the ecological processes influencing amphibian population declines worldwide Blaustein and Dobson In large schools, which can comprise hundreds of thousands of individuals Blaustein , there is great potential for disease transmission. For example, the eggs of some species do not have adequate defenses against UVB radiation, and they may be laid where they are subjected to lethal levels of UVB radiation Blaustein et al. But under today's conditions, these very behaviors may subject amphibians to a variety of damaging agents, including UVB radiation and pathogens. Lee, M. Kiesecker, and A. Environmental pollutants arise as likely important factors in amphibian declines because they have realized potential to affect recruitment.
Animals have been exposed to sunlight and UVB radiation throughout their evolutionary history Cockell Vredenburg, V. For example, the evolutionary timescale may be in hours for bacteria, in weeks for certain fly species, and in decades for some vertebrate groups.
based on 85 review