ERG Theory Figure 5. Goal -Setting Theory The theory that specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance. If individuals have a high degree of self-efficacy, they are likely to respond more positively to specific and challenging goals than if they have a low degree of self-efficacy.
Practical applications The control of motivation is only understood to a limited extent. List the three questions individuals consider when deciding whether to put forth effort at work.
However, the specific kind of motivation that is studied in the specialized setting of education differs qualitatively from the more general forms of motivation studied by psychologists in other fields. Thus, managers should attempt, to the extent possible, to ensure that their employees believe that increased effort will improve performance and that performance will lead to valued rewards.
Another option is to change the behavior of the reference person, perhaps by encouraging that person to put forth more effort. Needs theories distinguish between primary needs, such as food, sleep and other biological needs, and secondary psychological needs that are learned and vary by culture and by individual.
Motivator-Hygiene Theory. Foss, Nicolai.
Frederick Herzberg developed the motivator-hygiene theory.